On the Open-Ended (Never-Ending) Character (Nature) of Language Politics

Once I aspired to compose a dictionary of language politics, but then I understood that as languages are constructed by people, functions are conferred or imposed on languages by humans and their groups, as well. Apart of the nowadays  usual fare of national, official, state or constitutional languages; such ones as ancestral, interethnic or indigenous languages make an appearance, too. Basically, as many symbolical or function statuses may be attached to languages as humans and their groups desire or find necessary. Hence, the potential variety is endless, limited only by human imagination and the sheer number of human groups.

Below I give the headwords of the intended dictionary.

An Interdisciplinary Dictionary of Language Politics for Historians and Social Scientists

 

by

 

Tomasz Kamusella

University of St Andrews

Scotland, UK

 

NB: dictionary’s goal: to bridge, in a clear and free of specialistic jargon language, the gap between linguistics, sociolinguistis and social sciences at large

 

NB: 80,000 words

 

NB: A dictionary of language politics is a record of human creativity and ingenuity at employing the linguistic for shaping the political, and in turn, for using the cultural and the social for shaping the linguistic. Such a dictionary can never be completed. By definition it must be open-ended, because human creativity playing with the feedback between the linguistic and the social (as including the political and the cultural, too) does continue, and will not cease as long as humankind exists. Furthermore, this dictionary and the record it covers are time- and space-specific for a mere bubble within the all-humanity semiosphere, that is, the bubble of social and linguistic interaction in which the researcher is immersed by the circumstances of his life, and of which he is somewhat knowledgeable.

 

 

There is a growing awareness among linguists, historians, and anthropologists that our conceptual tools for understanding linguistic differences still derive from the massive scholarly [and political] attempt to create the political differentiation of Europe. What is less often remarked is that the intellectual justification of today’s disciplinary division of scholarly work on language derives from the same source. For example, within the social sciences, the persistent use of language as a synecdoche for community relies unquestioningly on the supposedly natural correlation of one language with one culture. As a result, social scientists too often continue to rely on linguistics to provide language categories that will delimit social groups for purposes of analysis. Although it is now a commonplace that social categories – including nations, ethnic groups, races, genders, classes – are in part constructed and reproduced through symbolic devices and everyday practices that create boundaries between them, this analysis is only rarely extended to language.

 

Gal, Susan and Irvine, Judith T. 1995. The Boundaries of Languages and Disciplines: How Ideologies Construct Differences (pp 967-1002). Social Research. No 4, p 968.

 

 

[In recent historiography] we have had much discussion of language as ‘discourse,’ and considerable advances in the less imponderable field of the social history of language […]; nowadays ‘(political) communication’ is a fast-rising topic. But ‘language politics,’ language as a part of political culture, have not apparently been thought relevant. One can search textbooks in vain for basic information on what linguistic medium was actually in use by a given government or institution.

 

Evans, Robert J W. 2006. The Politics of Language in Europe, c. 1527-1697 (pp 455-476). Przegląd Historyczny. No 4.

 

 

 

 

abjad (consonantry)

 

Abstand language

See also Aufbau language;

 

‘accent’ (language variety)

See also language prejudice, sociolect

 

accent

See suprasegmental

 

academy (of sciences)

 

Adamic langauge

See oldest (Adamic) language

 

age of a dialect

 

age of an ethnic group

 

age of a language

 

anachronism

See also anachronistic division of a language, language is older than its dialects

 

anachronistic division of a language [retroactive dividing of Ruthenian into Old Belarusian and Old Ukrainian]

See also anachronism

ancestral language [used for politically/ethnically motivated identification, even though no competency in it, cf Indic languages in Mauritius – Thomas Hylland Eriksen, Polonia in the US]

 

Anderson, Benedict Richard O’Gorman

See also imaginedness, nation as imagined community, print capitalism

 

anthropomorphization

See also biologization, dead language, language birth, language death, living language

 

Antiqua

See also script type(face)

 

areal classification

See also dialect continuum, genetic classification, linguistic area, language classification; Schuchardt, Hugo

 

assimilation

See also ethnic cleansing, ethnocide, genocide, linguicide

 

Association of Spanish Language Academies (Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española)

See also British Commonwealth, Francophonie, Dutch Language Union

 

asymmetric mutual comprehensibility

See also Haugen, Einar; mutual comprehensibility

 

Aufbau language

See also Abstand language; Kloss, Heinz

 

Austin, John Langshaw (1911-1960)

See also speech act

 

authoritative dictionary

 

ban

language ~, see language ban

script ~, see script ban

type(face) ~, see type(face) ban

 

 

banal nationalism

See also Billig, Michael; communication, nationalism

 

barring access to earlier texts in a language through script change

See also Cyrillicization, Latinization, script reform

 

Barth, Thomas Frederik Weybye (1928-)

See also ethnic boundary, ethnic group

 

basic (generic) skills

See also compulsory military service;

Gellner, Ernest; industrialization, literacy, numeracy, popular elementary education, urbanization

 

beauty of languages

See also language myths

 

better developed language

See also language myths

 

Bible translations

See also language recognition, language registration, print capitalism, printer’s language, standardization, translation language

 

bilingual dictionary

 

bilingualism

See multilingualism

 

Billig, Michael

See also banal nationalism

 

biologization

See also anthropomorphization, linguistic Darwinism; Schleicher, August; Sprachorganismus

 

biscripturalism [Montenegrin, Serbian]

See also multiscripturalism, script reform

 

Böckh, Richard (1824-1907)

See also census, language question, language as the measure of nationality, language statistics, Sixth International Statistical Congress, Umgangssprache

 

book

See also codex, print, print capitalism, scroll

 

book language (Russ. книжный язык, knizhnyi iazyk)

See also language

 

Breton, Roland J L

See also language rights, minority language

 

Bühnensprache

See also standard pronunciation

 

British Commonwealth

See also Association of Spanish Language Academies, Francophonie, Dutch Language Union

 

bundle of isoglosses

See also imaginedness, isogloss, language boundary, perceptual dialectology

 

Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca (1922-)

See also horizontal evolution

 

chancery language

See also language

 

child-exchange system (Tauschkind-System) [Liszka 1996]

See also language acquisition, multilingualism

 

Church Cyrillic (Russ. церковная кириллица, tserkovnaiia kirillitsa)

See also script type(face)

 

census

See also Böckh, Richard; language question, language as the measure of nationality, language statistics, Sixth International Statistical Congress, Umgangssprache

 

civic nationalism

See also citizenry, ethnolinguistic nationalism, ethnic nationalism; Kohn, Hans; nationalism

 

clareté française

See also French as universal language, language myths

 

code-switching

See also diglossia, multilingualism

 

codex

See also book, codification, scroll, vernacular, writing, written language

 

codification

See also codex, print, print capitalism, standardization

 

colloquial language

See also language

 

colonial linguistics

See also Errington, Joseph; language and colonialism

 

communication

See also Deutsch, Karl W; Dunbar, Robin; face-to-face communication, non-face-to-face communication

 

compulsory military service

See also basic (generic) skills, dialect levelling, language discrimination, language imposition, literacy

 

constitutional language

See also language

 

continuity vs discontinuity of language existence [Anglo-Saxon, Anglo Norman, English, US English – a single language or a (chronological) series of different languages?]

 

correctness

See also purism, prescriptivism

 

corrupted language

See also language prejudice

 

cultural colonialism

See also language and colonialism, language prejudice

 

creating inequality with the use of language

See also denial of language status, language building, sociolect, standardization

 

creole

See also dialect, pidgin, (post-)creole continuum; Schuchardt, Hugo

 

consonantry

See abjad

 

cultural evolution

See horizontal evolution

 

Cyrillicization (кириллизация, kirillizatsiia)

See also language building, Latnization, script reform

 

Czernowitz (Chernivtsi) Conference (1908) [Yiddish]

See also language agreement

 

Darwin, Charles (1809-1882)

See also Darwin’s comment on evolution and language

 

Darwin’s comment on evolution and language

See also Darwin, Charles; horizontal evolution, linguistic Darwinism

 

dead language

See also anthropomorphization

 

demographic and linguistic change in cities [Budapest, Prague, Vilnius, Lviv, Dushanbe, place-name changes]

See also place-names and language politics

 

denial of dialect status [Moldovan – Romanian]

 

denial of language status [Macedonian – Bulgarian]

 

decreolization (creole death)

See also dialect levelling, language discrimination, (post-)creole continuum, standardization

 

descriptivism

See also prescriptivism

 

Deutch, Karl Wolfgang (1912-1992)

See also communication, nationalism

 

Deutsches Wörerbuch

See also dictionary on historical principles; Grimm, Jakob; Grimm, Wilhelm; number of words in a language, standardization

 

developed (civilized) script

See also language myths

 

dialect

See also dialect continuum, creole, multilingualism, pidgin

 

dialect

literary ~, see literary dialect

national culture~, see dialect of a national culture

roofless ~, see roofles dialect

written ~, see written dialect

 

dialect appropriation

See dialect roofing

 

dialect continuum

See also areal classification, dialect, (post-)creole continuum; Schuchardt, Hugo

 

dialect levelling (death)

See also language discrimination, rural language, sociolect, standardization, urban language

 

dialect of a national culture (Kulturdialekt) [dialect or not a widely recognized language in the moment when it may be decided to recognize it as a full-fledged language. A parallel with the concept of nationality as standing between ethnic group and nation. Eg Luxembourgish, and earlier Galician]

See also ethnic group, nationality

 

dialectal base

See standard’s dialectal base

 

dialect roofing (Überdachung) [more correctly, dialect appropriation, usu. imposed from above]

See also anachronism, roofless dialect, standardization

 

diaspora and script [faithful of the same ethnic group use the script of their lithurgical lg to note their genetically different vernaculars, see Armenians, Jews]

See also religion and script

 

dictionary

See also grammar, lexicography, number of words in a language, standardization

 

dictionary

authoritative ~, see authoritative dictionary

bilingual ~, see bilingual dictionary

etymological ~, see etymological dictionary

monolingual ~, see monolingual dictionary

multivolume ~, see multivolume dictionary

orthographic ~, see orthographic dictionary

standardizing ~, see standardizing dictionary

 

dictionary on historical principles

See also Deutsches Wörerbuch; Grimm, Jakob; Grimm, Wilhelm; number of words in a language; Oxford English Dictionary, The; standardization

 

diglossia [Ferguson, Charles A. 1959. “Diglossia,” Word 15: 325-340]

See also code-switching; Ferguson, Charles A; multilingualism, schizoglossia

 

Druckersprache

See printer’s language

 

Dulichenko, Aleksandr

See also microlanguage

 

Dunbar, Robin Ian MacDonald (1947-)

See also face-to-face communication, non-face-to-face communication

 

Dunbar’s number

See also Dunbar, Robin; face-to-face communication, language, horizontal evolution

 

Dutch Language Union (Nederlandse Taalunie)

See also Association of Spanish Language Academies, British Commonwealth, Francophonie

 

emic

See also etic, phonetic

 

endangered language

See also language death, language protection

 

ennationalization

See also nation, nationalism

 

entrepreneur

ethnic ~, see ethnic entrepreneur

linguistic ~, see linguistic entrepreneur

national ~, see national entrepreneur

 

Errington, James Joseph (1951-)

See also colonial linguistics

 

estates and language [Gm in Courland, Livonia and Estland, demograpohic minority, but dominant socially due to their noble status]

See also language politics

 

ethnic boundary

See also Barth, Frederik; ethnic group

 

ethnic cleansing

See also assimilation, ethnocide, genocide, linguicide

ethnic entrepreneur

 

ethnic group (ethnie, ethnos)

See also ethnic boundary, ethnonym, nation, nationality, people

 

ethnic language

See also ethnic group

 

ethnic nationalism

See also civic nationalism, ethnolinguistic nationalism; Kohn, Hans; nationalism

 

ethnicity

See also ethnic group

 

ethnie

See ethnic group

 

ethnocide (culturcide) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnocide]

See also anthropomorphization, assimilation, ethnic cleansing, language death, language building, linguicide

 

ethnolinguistic map

See also census, language question, linguistic atlas, school atlas of history

 

ethnolinguistic nationalism

See also nationalism, normative isomorphism of language, nation and nation-state

 

Ethnologue

ISO 639, language registration, Library of Congress, SIL International

 

ethnonym

See also ethnic group, exoethnonym, self-ethnonym

 

ethnos

See ethnic group

 

etic

See also emic, phonemic

 

etymological dictionary

 

etymological writing system

See also orthography, phonemic writing system, writing system

 

EU language policy

See also EU official language

 

EU official language

See also EU language policy, immigrant language, minority language, regional language

 

euphemistic language

See also language, politeness

 

evolution

See horizontal evolution, vertical evolution

 

exoethnonym

See also ethnonym, self-ethnonym

 

exolinguonym

See also linguonym, self-linguonym

 

extralinguistic

See also perilinguistic

 

failed language

See also language building; Maxwell, Alexander

 

face-to-face communication

See also Dunbar, Robin; non-face-to-face communication

 

female illiteracy

See also gender and language, literacy

 

female script [Nushu – woman’s writing]

See also gender and language

 

Ferguson, Charles Albert (1921-1998)

See also diglossia

 

first congress phenomenon

See language agreement

 

first language

See also monolingualism, mother tongue, native language, second language

 

Fishman, Joshua Aron (1926-)

See also language agreement

 

Francophonie

See also Association of Spanish Language Academies, British Commonwealth, Dutch Language Union

 

French as the universal language

See also language myths; Rivarol, Antoine de

 

French language building (and destruction)

See also language building

 

functional (partial) illiteracy

See also illiteracy, literacy, reading

 

Gaelic (Irish) type(face)

See also script type(face)

 

Gellner, Ernest André (1925-1995)

See also basic (generic) skills, nationalism, time zones of (European) nationalism

 

gender and language

See also female illiteracy, female script, mother tongue

 

genealogical tree (Stammbaum)

See also genetic classification, language classification, politics of language classification; Schleicher, August

 

genetic classification

See also genealogical tree, language classification; Schleicher, August

 

genocide

See also assimilation, ethnic cleansing, ethnocide, linguicide

 

Germanization

See also assimilation, ethnic cleansing, ethnocide, linguicide

 

global language

See also language dethnicization, language spread, linguistic imperialism, language imposition, power

 

global system of states

See also nation-state, state

 

God’s language

See also Bible translations, Koran translations, language, language myths, language status

 

good vs bad nationalism

See also nationalism; Plamenatz, John

 

Gothic typeface (also Black Letter, Fraktur)

See also script type(face)

 

grammar

See also dictionary, standardization

 

grapheme

See also text, writing

 

Grazhdanka

See also script type(face)

 

Grimm, Jakob (1785-1863)

See also Deutsches Wörerbuch, dictionary on historical principles; Grimm, Wilhelm; number of words in a language, standardization

 

Grimm, Wilhelm (1786-1859)

See also Deutsches Wörerbuch, dictionary on historical principles; Grimm, Jakob; number of words in a language, standardization

 

Haugen, Einar (1906-1994)

See also asymmetric mutual comprehensibility

 

Haugen’s model of language standardization (creation) [Haugen 1966 Dialect, Language, Nation]

See also Haugen, Einar; Haugen’s model of language standardization, standardization

 

Herder, Johann Gottfried (1744-1803)

See also Herder’s prophecy

 

Herder’s prophecy

See also ethnolinguistic nationalism; Herder, Johann Gottfried; language myths

 

horizontal (cultural) evolution

See also biologization; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca; Darwin’s comment on evolution and language, Dunbar’s number, vertical evolution

 

Hroch, Miroslav (1932-)

See also Hroch’s phase model of ethnic nation building

 

Hroch’s phase model of ethnic nation building

See also ethnic nationalism; Hroch, Miroslav; nationalism, nation-building

 

idiolect

See also sociolect

 

idiom [synonym for language]

See language

 

illiteracy

See also communication, literacy, radio, spoken web (internet), telegraphy, telephony, television

 

imagined character of a language

See also Anderson, Benedict; imaginedness; nation as imagined community

 

imaginedness

See also Anderson, Benedict; imagined character of a language; nation as imagined community, perceptual dialectology; Dennis R, Preston

 

immigrant language

See also minority language, regional language

 

industrialization

See also basic (generic) skills, compulsory military service; Gellner, Ernest; literacy, nationalism, numeracy, universal elementary education, urbanization

 

inequality

See creating inequality with the use of language

 

interlanguage

See also language acquisition

 

internet

See also book, print capitalism, spoken web (internet), Unicode

 

ISO 639

See also Ethnologue, language registration, Library of Congress, SIL International

 

isogloss

See also bundle of isoglosses

 

Israeli language building (and destruction)

See also language building

 

jargon [Yiddish]

See also language prejudice

 

Jewish languages

See also diaspora and script, religion and script

 

Joseph II’s replacement of Latin with German as the official language in the Habsburg lands (1784)

See also language imposition

 

Kamusella, Tomasz

See also language as an instrument of nationalism

 

Katowice Conference (2008) [Silesian]

See also language agreement

 

King’s (Queen’s) English

See also Received Pronunciation (RP), sociolect, standard language

 

kitchen language [Küchel-Böhmisch]

See also language prejudice

 

Kloss, Heinz (1904-1987)

See also Abstand language, Aufbau language

 

Kohn, Hans (1891-1971)

See also civic nationalism, ethnic nationalism, nationalism as the sole global ideology

 

koiné

See standard

 

Koran translations

See also God’s language, language recognition, language registration, print capitalism, standardization, translation language

 

korenizatsiia (nativization)

See also Soviet language building

 

landesüblichen Sprache

See also language politics, nationality, regional language

 

language (in general)

See also speech organs

 

language (in the meaning of ‘a language’)

See also dialect, language (in general)

 

language

       Abstand ~, see Abstand language

administration, see language of administration

ancestral ~, see ancestral language

Aufbau ~, see book language

book ~, see dead language

chancery ~, see chancery language

colloquial ~, see colloquial language

constitutional ~, see constitutional language

dead ~, see dead language

education, see language of education

endangered ~, see endangered language

ethnic ~, see ethnic language

EU official ~, see EU official language

euphemistic ~, see euphemistic language

failed ~, see failed language

first ~, see first language

global ~, see global language

God ~, see God’s language

immigrant ~, see immigrant language

inter- ~, see inter-language

interethnic communication, see language of interethnic communication

kitchen ~, see kitchen language

literary ~, see literary language

liturgical ~, see liturgical language

living ~, see living language

micro- ~, see microlanguage

minority ~, see minority language

national ~, see national language

native ~, see native language

official ~, see official language

offspring ~, see offspring language

oldest ~, see oldest (Adamic) language

paradise, see language of paradise

parent ~, see parent language

pastoral service, see language of pastoral service

polite ~, see polite language

printer’s ~, see printer’s language

regional ~, see regional language

roof ~, see roof language

rural ~, see rural language

second ~, see second language

sister ~, see sister language

spoken ~, see spoken language

standard ~, see standard (language)

stock ~, see stock language

translation ~, see translation language

urban ~, see urban language

written ~, see written language

 

language academy

See academy (of sciences)

 

language acquisition

See also child-exchange system, first language, interlanguage, multilingualism, second language

 

language agreement (on a standard also known as first congress phenomenon)

See also Czernowitz Conference; Fishman, Joshua; language building, language politics, Katowice Conference, Monastir (Bitola) Congress, Novi Sad Agreement, Tirana Orthography Congress, standard, standardization, Vienna Literary Agreement

 

language and colonialism

See also Bible translations, colonial linguistics, cultural colonialism, imaginedness, language boundary, Macaulay’s Minute on Indian Education

 

language as a phenomenon solely dependent on Humankind

 

language as an instrument of nationalism

See also ethnolinguistic nationalism; Kamusella, Tomasz

 

language as the measure of nationality

See also Böckh, Richard; census, language statistics, language question, Sixth International Statistical Congress

 

language ban

See also assimilation, ban, ethnic cleansing, language legislation, linguicide

 

language boundary

See also bundle of isoglosses, dialect continuum, ethnic boundary, imaginedness, linguistic atlas, perceptual dialectology

 

language birth

See also anthropomorphization

 

language building (construction) (Russ. языковые строительство, iazykovye stroitelstvo)

See also Cyrillicization, French language building, Israeli language building, language planning, language politics, Latinization, nation building, Soviet language building, Turkish language building, Yugoslav language building

 

language change

See also rate of language change

 

language classification

See also areal classification, dialect continuum, genealogical tree, genetic classification, linguistic area, politics of language classification

 

language conflict

See also creating inequality with the use of language, language imposition, language prejudice

 

language death

See also anthropomorphization, language extinction, lingucide

 

language dethnicization [English, French, Spanish]

See also global language, language of interethnic communication, vehicular language

 

language discrimination [Irish or Maltese – EU languages, Catalan not]

See also ethnolinguistic nationalism, EU language, language prejudice

 

language dividing [Czech – Slovak, Bosnian – Croatian – Montenegrin – Serbian]

See also language building, language naming, language planning, language unification

 

language extinction

See also biologization, language death

 

language evolution

See horizontal evolution

 

language imposition

See also language ban, language discrimination, language retention, popular elementary education, script ban

 

language is older than its dialects

See also anachronism, language myths

 

language legislation

 

language myths

See also anthropomorphization, beauty of languages, better developed language, biologization, developed (civilized) script, French as the universal language, Herder’s prophecy, language is older than its dialects,

musicality of languages, oldest (Adamic) language, perfect language, primitive language, primitive script, russkaia dusha, Sun Language Theory, Volksgeist

 

language naming

See also language dividing, language building, linguonym, self-linguonym

 

language of administration [inner, outer administration, A-H]

See also language, official language

 

language of education

See also standardization, minority language

 

language of interethnic communication (Russ. язык межэтнической коммуникации, iazyk mezhetnicheskoi kommunikatsii)

See also Russification, Soviet language building, vehicular language

 

language of paradise

See also Bible translations, God’s language, language, language myths

 

language of pastoral service

See also language, liturgical language

 

language organism

See Sprachorganismus

 

language planning [status and corpus language planning, introduced by Haugen]

See also Haugen, Einar

 

language policy

 

language politics

 

language prejudice

See also ‘accent’ (language variety), jargon, kitchen language, patois, surzhyk

 

language preservation

See also endangered language, language death, language protection

 

language protection

See also endangered language, language planning, language politics

 

language question (in census)

See also Böckh, Richard; census, ethnographic map, ethnolinguistic nationalism, language as the measure of nationality, language statistics, Sixth International Statistical Congress

 

language question (Ital. la questione della lingua italiana)

See also ethnolinguistic nationalism, standardization

 

language recognition

See also language legislation, language politics, Unicode, Wikipedia

 

language registration

See also Ethnologue, ISO 639, Library of Congress, SIL International

 

language reform

See also language politics, language planning, script reform

 

language retention

See also language imposition, language legislation, language revitalization

 

language revitalization

See also language planning

 

language rights (linguistic rights)

 

language spread

See also global language, language imposition, linguistic imperialism, power

 

language statistics

See also Böckh, Richard; census, language question, language as the measure of nationality, language statistics, Sixth International Statistical Congress, Umgangssprache

 

language status

See also language recognition, language registration

 

language unification [Czechoslovak, Serbocroatoslovenian, Netherlandic]

See also language building, language dividing, language naming, language planning

 

language variety [US v UK English]

See also written dialect

 

Latnization (латинизация, latinizatsia)

See also Cyrillicization, language building, script reform

 

legitimization

See nationhood legitimization, statehood legitimization

 

lexicography

See also dictionary, grammar, standardization

 

Library of Congress

See also Ethnologue, ISO 639, language registration, SIL International

 

lingua franca

See vehicular language

 

linguistic area (linguistic league, Sprachbund)

See also areal classification, language classification

 

linguistic atlas

See also bundle of isoglosses, ethnolinguistic nationalism, ethnic boundary, language boundary

 

linguistic Darwinism

See also biologization; Schleicher, August; Sprachorganismus

 

linguistic entrepreneur

 

linguistic imperialism

See also language and colonialism, language discrimination, language imposition

 

linguistic rights

See language rights

 

linguistics as a social science

 

linguicide (Ukr. лінгвоцид, lingvotsid) [Language rights and linguicide; special issue [by] Jaroslav B. Rudnyckyj, Munich, Ukrainisches Technisch-Wirtschaftliches Institut, 1967. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaroslav_Rudnyckyj, 1910-1995)]

See also anthropomorphization, assimilation, ethnic cleansing, ethnocide, Germanization, language death, language building, Magyarization, Polonization, Russification

 

linguonym

See also exolinguonym, language naming, self-linguonym

 

literacy

See also compulsory military service, illiteracy, female illiteracy, functional illiteracy, numeracy, popular elementary education,

reading, writing

 

literary dialect (Schriftdialekt) [dialect in which literature is created]

 

literary language (Russ. литературный язык, literaturnyi iazyk) [Виноградов В. В., Проблемы литературных языков и закономерностей их образования и развития, М., 1967]

 

liturgical language

See also religion and script

 

living language

See also anthropomorphization

 

logographic script

 

Macaulay’s Minute on Indian Education (1835)

See also language and colonialism

 

Magyarization

See also assimilation, ethnic cleansing, ethnocide, linguicide

 

mass media

See communication, internet, radio, spoken web (internet), telegraphy, telephony, television

 

Maxwell, Alexander

See also failed language

 

medium of education

See language of education

 

microlanguage

See also Dulichenko, Aleksandr

 

minority language

See also Breton, Roland; immigrant language, language rights, regional language

 

modernization

See also basic(generic) skills, industrialization, nationalism, standardization, urbanization

 

Monastir (Bitola) Congress (1908)

See also language agreement

 

monolingual dictionary

 

monolingualism

See also ethnolinguistic nationalism, first language, multilingualism

 

mora

See also syllable

 

moraic script

See syllabary

 

mother tongue

See also first language, gender and language, native language

 

multilingualism

See also child-exchange system, code-switching, diglossia, language acquisition, monolingualism, second language

 

multiscripturalism [usu serial, eg, SU Arabic – Latin – Cyrillic]

See also biscripturalism, script reform

 

multivolume dictionary

 

musicality of languages

See also language myths

 

mutual comprehensibility

See also asymmetric mutual comprehensibility; Haugen, Einar

 

nation

See also ennationalization, ethnic group, nationality, nation as imagined community, nationhood legitimization, nation-state, people

 

national entrepreneur

 

nationalism

See also banal nationalism, Billig, Michael; Deutsch, Karl W; civic nationalism, ennationalization, ethnolinguistic nationalism; Gellner, Ernest; good vs bad nationalism, nation, nationality, nation-state; Plamenatz, John

 

nationalism as the sole global ideology

See also global system of states; Kohn, Hans

 

nationality

See also ethnic group, landesüblichen Sprache, nation, people

 

national language

See also EU official language

 

nation as imagined community

See also Anderson, Benedict; imaginedness; imagined character of a language; nation

 

nation-building

See also language building, nation, nationalism

 

nationhood legitimization

See also nation, statehood legitimization

 

nation-state

See also nation, nationalism, state, statehood legitimization

 

nation-state building

See also nation, nationalism, nation-state

 

non-face-to-face communication

See also Dunbar, Robin; face-to-face communication

 

normative isomorphism of language, nation and nation-state

See also ethnolinguistic nationalism; Kamusella, Tomasz

 

Novi Sad Agreement (1954)

See also language agreement

 

number of words in a language

 

number of languages

 

numeracy

See also literacy

 

official language

See also EU official language

 

offspring language

See also anthropomorphization, biologization, genetic classification, language; Schleicher, August

 

oldest (Adamic) language

See also language of paradise, language myths

 

orthographic (spelling) dictionary

 

orthography (spelling)

See also correctness, prescriptivism

 

Oxford English Dictionary, The

See also Deutsches Wörerbuch, dictionary on historical principles; Grimm, Jakob; Grimm, Wilhelm; number of words in a language, standardization

 

paragraph

See also sentence, text, word,

writing

 

parent language

See also anthropomorphization, biologization, genetic classification, language; Schleicher, August

 

patois

See also language prejudice

 

patois nègre [pejorative for ‘creole’]

See also language and colonialism, language prejudice

 

perceptual dialectology

See also imaginedness; Preston, Dennis R

 

perfect language [Serbian, because one to one correspondence between phonemes and Cyrillic letters, arguably not met by any other lg in the world]

See also language myths

 

perilinguistic

See also extralinguistic

 

phonemic

See also emic, phonetic

 

phonemic writing system

See also etymological writing system, orthography, writing system

 

phonetic

See also etic, phonemic

 

pidgin

See also creole; Schuchardt, Hugo

 

place-names and language

See also demographic and linguistic change in cities

 

Plamenatz, John Petrov (1912-1975)

See also nationalism, good vs bad nationalism

 

polite language

See also language, politeness

 

politeness

See also euphemistic language, polite language

 

politics of language classification

See also language classification

 

Polonization

See also assimilation, ethnic cleansing, ethnocide, linguicide

 

popular elementary education

See also basic (generic) skills, compulsory military servicefemale illiteracy, language conflict, language discrimination, language imposition, literacy, numeracy, school atlas of history

 

(post-)creole continuum

See also creole, dialect continuum

 

power

See also global language, linguistic imperialism,

language imposition, language spread

 

prescriptivism

See also correctness, descriptivism, purism

 

Preston, Dennis Richard

See also perceptual dialectology

 

primitive language

See also language and colonialism, language myths, language prejudice, linguistic imperialism

 

primitive script

See also language myths, language and colonialism, language discrimination

 

print

See also book

 

print capitalism

See also Anderson, Benedict; nationalism; nation as imagined community, print

 

printer’s language (Druckersprache)

See also language

 

pronunciation

 

purism

See also correctness, prescriptivism

 

radio

See also mass media

 

rate of language change

See also language change, language death, language preservation

 

reading

See also functional (partial) illiteracy, writing

 

Received Pronunciation (RP)

See also standard pronunciation

 

religion and script [script of the liturgical lg used for writing different vernaculars of the faithful of the same religion, thus, ideologically unites various lgs (PL, Gm) or creates new lgs > Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi; faithful of the same ethnic group use the script of their lithurgical lg to note their genetically different vernaculars, see Armenians, Jews]

See also diaspora and script, language building, liturgical language

 

regional language

See also immigrant language, landesüblichen Sprache, minority language

 

Rivarol, Antoine de (1753-1801)

See also French as the universal language

 

Roma languages

See also creating inequality with the use of language,

ethnic language, minority language, social exclusion and language, Wikipedia

 

roof (umbrella) language (Dachsprache)

See also dialect roofing, roofless dialect, standard (language)

 

roofless dialect

See also anachronism, dialect roofing, standardization

 

rural language

See also dialect, dialect levelling, language discrimination, sociolect, standardization, urban language

 

Russification

See also assimilation, ethnic cleansing, ethnocide, linguicide

 

russkaia dusha (русская душа)

See also language myths, Volksgeist

 

schizoglossia

See also diglossia, Haugen, Einar

 

school atlas of history

See also ethnolinguistic nationalism; Kamusella, Tomasz; normative isomorphism of language, nation and nation-state

 

Schuchardt, Hugo Ernst Mario (1842-1927)

See also areal classification, dialect continuum, creole, pidgin

 

script

See writing system

 

script ban

See also ban, language discrimination

 

script change

See script reform

 

script reform

See also barring access to earlier texts in a language through script change, Cyrillicization, Latinization

 

script translation [perevod iz persidskoi grafiki na tadzhitskou grafiku]

See also Soviet language building, translation, transliteration

 

script type(face)

See also Antiqua, Church Cyrillic, Gaelic, Gothic, Grazhdanka

 

scroll

See also book, codex, internet

 

Schleicher, August (1821-1868)

See also biologization, linguistic Darwinism, Sprachorganismus

 

second language

See also first language, language, multilingualism

 

self-ethnonym

See also ethnic group, exoethnonym, ethnonym

 

self-linguonym

See also language naming, exolinguonym, linguonym

 

sentence

See also paragraph, text, word, writing

 

SIL International

See also Ethnologue, ISO 639, language registration, Library of Congress

 

sister language

See also anthropomorphization, biologization, genetic classification, language; Schleicher, August

 

Sixth International Statistical Congress (St Petersburg, 1872)

See also Böckh, Richard; census, ethnolinguistic nationalism, language as the measure of nationality, language question

 

social exclusion and language

See also Roma languages

 

sociolect

See also language prejudice, standardization

 

Soviet language building (and destruction)

See also korenizatsiia, language building, Russification

 

speakers of a language

See speech community

 

speech

 

speech act [How to do Things with Words: The William James Lectures Delivered at Harvard University in 1955. Ed. J. O. Urmson. Oxford: Clarendon, 1962.]

See also Austin, John Langshaw; imaginedness

 

speech community (speakers of a language)

 

speech organs

 

spelling

See orthography

 

spoken language

See also vernacular, written language

 

spoken web (internet; telecom web)

See also communication, internet

 

Sprachbund (pl Sprachbünde)

See linguistic area

 

Sprachorganismus (pl Sprachorganismen, language organism)

See also biologization, linguistic Darwinism; Schleicher, August

 

standardization

See also codification, Haugen’s model of language standardization, standard (language)

 

standardizing dictionary

 

standard (language) (also koiné)

See also codification, standardization

 

standard pronunciation

See also Bühnensprache, Received Pronunciation (RP)

 

standard’s dialectal base

See also standard (language), standardization

 

state

See also global system of states, nation-state, statehood legitimization

 

statehood legitimization

See also nation-state, nationhood legitimization, state

 

stock language

See also anthropomorphization, biologization, genetic classification, language; Schleicher, August

 

Sun Language Theory (Güneş Dil Teorisi)

See also language myths, Turkish language building

 

suprasegmental

 

surzhyk (Ukr. суржик, surzhyk)

See also language prejudice

 

syllabary (moraic script)

 

syllable

See also mora

 

telegraphy

See also mass media

 

telephony

See also mass media

 

television

See also mass media

 

text

See also book, print, writing

 

time zones of (European) nationalism

See also Gellner, Ernest; nationalism

 

Tirana Orthography Congress (1972)

See also language agreement

 

tongue [synonym for language]

See language

 

translation

See also language, text

 

translation language [Ladino for the word for word translation of the Pentateuch vs vernacular Spanyol, word for word interlineal Persian translation of the Koran]

See also Bible translations, Koran translations, language

 

transliteration method of presenting words or entire sentences written in a script usual for a given language in another script.

See also script translation

 

Turkish language building (and destruction)

See also language building, Sun Language Theory

 

typeface

See script type(face)

 

type(face) ban

See also ban, language discrimination

 

 

Umgangssprache (sometimes Alltagssprache, Gebrauchssprache, or Gemeinsprache)

See also census, ethnolinguistic nationalism

 

Unicode

See also internet, language recognition, script, Wikipedia

 

urban language

See also rural language, sociolect, standardization,

 

urbanization

See also basic (generic) skills, compulsory military service, industrialization, literacy, nationalism, numeracy, popular elementary education

 

vehicular language (lingua franca)

See also communication, industrialization, urbanization

 

vernacular [previously spoken language of a given speech community, only recently committed to writing in a limited number of uses, while the literate population at large still considers a well established written language (not used for everyday communication by a the concerned speech community) as the appropriate one in which all official and important writing should be conducted]

See also spoken language, written language

 

vertical evolution

See also biologization, Dunbar’s number, horizontal evolution

 

Vienna Literary Agreement (1850)

See also language agreement

 

Volksgeist (Volksseele, Nationalgeist or Geist der Nation, Volkscharakter)

See also language myths, russkaia dusha

 

Wikipedia

See also language building, language recognition, language registration, Unicode

 

word

See also paragraph, sentence, text, writing

 

writing

See also literacy, female illiteracy, illiteracy, reading

 

writing system (script)

See also abjad (consonantry), alphabet, etymological writing system, phonemic writing system, syllabary (moraic script), logographic script, Unicode

 

written dialect (Schriftdialekt) [dialect employed for written purposes, eg Swiss German]

See also language variety

 

written language

See also spoken language, vernacular

 

Yugoslav language building (and destruction)

See also language building

 

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